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Scandium speciation in a world-class lateritic deposit

M. Chassé1,2,

1Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, UMR IRD 206, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
2Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS) and GEMOC, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia

W.L. Griffin2,

2Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS) and GEMOC, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia

S.Y. O'Reilly2,

2Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS) and GEMOC, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia

G. Calas1

1Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, UMR IRD 206, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France

Affiliations  |  Corresponding Author  |  Cite as  |  Funding information

Chassé, M., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Calas, G. (2017) Scandium speciation in a world-class lateritic deposit. Geochem. Persp. Let. 3, 105–114.

École Normale Supérieure (ENS), Macquarie University, the Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), a Foundation Grant from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS) and Jervois Mining Ltd.

Geochemical Perspectives Letters v3, n2  |  doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1711
Received 6 August 2016  |  Accepted 31 October 2016  |  Published 23 November 2016
Copyright © 2017 European Association of Geochemistry

Keywords: scandium, rare earth elements, laterite, tropical climate, alteration, chemical weathering, Fe oxides, quantitative phase analysis, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, speciation, sorption, incorporation, crystal-chemistry, mineralogy, geochemistry




Figure 1 (a) Geographical location of the Syerston–Flemington deposit. (b) Schematic cross section of the lateritic cover forming the Syerston–Flemington deposit, constructed from petrographic analysis of drill-cores. Average Sc concentrations ([Sc]avg) are calculated for each layer from ICP-MS analyses of samples collected every metre on each core. (c) Distribution of Sc with depth along the different levels of a typical profile (Tran.: transitional laterite).
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Figure 2  (a) X-ray diffraction pattern of ore sample JSD-1 – 15.4 m and associated multiphase Rietveld refinement (Al-gt: Al-bearing goethite, hem: haematite, kln: kaolinite, gbs: gibbsite, mgh: maghemite, ant: anatase). (b) Average phase proportions in the samples calculated from Rietveld refinement. (c) Bulk Sc concentration versus proportion of Al-bearing goethite estimated from Rietveld refinement.
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Figure 3  (a) Map of Fe speciation obtained by subtracting normalised synchrotron µ-XRF maps at 7133.9 eV, the energy characteristic of goethite and 7136.7 eV, the energy characteristic of haematite. (b) Synchrotron µ-XRF mapping of Sc.
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Figure 4  XANES spectra at the (a) Fe K-edge. (b) Sc K-edge (gt: goethite and hem: haematite). The numbers in brackets refer to the position given in Figure 3.
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Supplementary Figures and Tables


Table S-1 Latitude and longitude coordinates, altitude and dip angle of the two diamond core drillings.
Drill holeLatitudeLongitudeAltitudeDip
JSD-001−32°44′42.91901′′147°24′7.42757′′309.211 m−90°
JSD-002−32°44′43.326 11′′147°24′3.72856′′309.067 m−90°
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Figure S-1 Geological map of the Tout complex showing the locations of the drilling sites (cpx: clinopyroxene, hbl: hornblende, qtz: quartz).
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Table S-2 Detailed log of the JSD-001 drill core.
HorizonDepthColourFabric and/or texture
Transported laterite0 m – 0.3 mRed-brownBrecciated; coarsely grained (>5 mm); mixture of soil (≃25 %) and residual lateritic material (≃25 %), supporting Fe pisoliths (≃50 %); cavernous and interstitial porosity.
Transported laterite0.3 m – 2.5 mRed mottled with orange spotsMassive with a breccia-like texture; fine to coarse grains (<0.002 mm – 5 mm); matrix of lateritic material, probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinites (>80 %), associated with few Fe pisoliths (≃10 %), lateritic clasts (≃10 %) and fine sandy grains, possibly quartz, accessory orange areas (<5 %) without pisoliths or clasts and probably richer in Fe oxyhydroxides; interstitial porosity.
Transported laterite2.5 m – 5.2 mDark redMassive; fine grains when visible (<1 mm); dominated by a matrix of fine grains with clayey content (>95 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinite, rare sandy grains (<2 mm), possibly quartz; interstitial porosity.
Transported laterite5.2 m – 8 mDark red to dark orange-redMassive with breccia-like texture; fine grains when visible (<1 mm) with coarse clasts (>3 mm); dominated by a fine grained matrix with minor clay content (≃75 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinite, common angular clasts of lateritic material (≃20 %); interstitial porosity.
Haematitic laterite8 m – 10.2 mDark red to dark orange-redMassive to cemented granular material; fine to coarse grains (<0.002 mm – 5 mm); dominated by a clayey matrix with fine grains (>70 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinite, common to minor Fe pisoliths (5 % – 25 %); interstitial porosity.
Haematitic laterite10.2 m – 11.2 mDark brown to redMassive; fine grains when visible (<1 mm); dominant matrix of fine grains and clays (>90 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinite, a homogeneous dark-brown vein at the bottom of the level, possibly rich in Al oxyhydroxides; interstitial and cavernous porosity.
Limonitic laterite11.2 m – 14.2 mDark to medium orange-redMassive to cemented granular material; fine to coarse grains (<0.002 mm – >5 mm); dominant to minor Fe pisoliths (5 % – 70 %) in a common to dominant matrix of fine grains and clays (30 % – 90 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides with kaolinite, rare to common orange areas, richer in Fe oxyhydroxides; interstitial and cavernous porosity.
Limonitic laterite14.2 m – 16.7 mMedium to light orange-red mottled with rare orange spotsMassive to cemented granular material; similar to the above level, with rarer orange areas (<10 %).
Limonitic laterite16.7 m – 18.2 mRed-pink mottled with orange spotsMassive to cemented granular material; fine grains when visible (<1 mm); dominated by a matrix of fine pinkish grains associated with clayey material (>90 %), probably Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides associated with kaolinites, with minor orange areas (≃10 %), probably rich in Fe oxyhydroxides; interstitial to cavernous porosity.
Limonitic laterite18.2 m – 18.7 mTan-brown to khaki-brownMassive; fine grains when visible (<1 mm); dominated by a matrix of fine grains and clayey material (>80 %), probably Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides associated with kaolinite, accessory white crystals (≃1 %); interstitial porosity.
Transitional laterite18.7 m – 20.5 mVariable, mottled with green, orange, red, purple, brown and black spotsGranular; medium to fine grains (<0.002 mm – 3 mm); dominated by a red-brown finely grained matrix (50 % – 80 %), probably a mixture of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, common green clayey areas becoming accessory in the upper parts (≃20 % – <1 %), two types of veins, filled-in by a black fine-grained matrix, possibly Mn oxides or by a white homogeneous matrix, possibly calcite; important interstitial porosity with fractures.
Transitional laterite20.5 m – 21.5 mGreen-grey mottled with orange and black spotsClay texture; dominant clay matrix (≃70 %), possibly smectite, minor fine grained orange areas (<10 %) possibly clays coated with Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, accessory crystalline black areas (<5 %), remnants of primary pyroxenes; probably important porosity but pores are not visible.
Saprolite21.5 m – 27.6 mGreen to light green-grey mottled with orange and black spotsCrystalline to granular; medium to fine grains (<0.002 mm – 3 mm); dominated by green clay minerals (>70 %), possibly smectite, with accessory remnants of black crystals (<5 %) identified as pyroxenes and minor rust-coloured areas (<10 %) formed by weathered crystals covered by Fe oxides; limited interstitial porosity increasing in the upper levels.
Saprolite27.6 m – 29.2 mDark brown-grey with light green to green brown fracturesMesh texture with filled-in fractures; rare sandy grains (<5 %) in a dominant serpentinized groundmass (≃90 %), fractures filled with clay fibres, probably serpentines; low porosity except in fractures.
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Table S-3 Sc concentration (in ppm) at each metre of the 26 vertical aircore drillings performed in the Syerston–Flemington area.
Drill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthSc
(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)
SY34-0-1344SY35-0-1362SY36-0-1114SY37-0-1205SY38-0-1432SY39-0-1140SY40-0-1189
SY34-1-2464SY35-1-2330SY36-1-2136SY37-1-2186SY38-1-2394SY39-1-290SY40-1-282
SY34-2-3484SY35-2-3368SY36-2-3137SY37-2-3161SY38-2-3443SY39-2-395SY40-2-378
SY34-3-4460SY35-3-4418SY36-3-4123SY37-3-4158SY38-3-4451

SY40-3-481
SY34-4-5562SY35-4-5482SY36-4-5120SY37-4-5161SY38-4-5455

SY40-4-579
SY34-5-6532SY35-5-6519SY36-5-6176SY37-5-6188SY38-5-6461

SY40-5-692
SY34-6-7706SY35-6-7544SY36-6-7211SY37-6-7203SY38-6-7457



SY34-7-8800SY35-7-8550SY36-7-8243SY37-7-8224SY38-7-8467



SY34-8-9724SY35-8-9606SY36-8-9320SY37-8-9265SY38-8-9479



SY34-9-10874SY35-9-10646SY36-9-10361SY37-9-10318SY38-9-10507



SY34-10-11796SY35-10-11642SY36-10-11324SY37-10-11331SY38-10-11519



SY34-11-12565SY35-11-12583SY36-11-12300SY37-11-12409SY38-11-12578



SY34-12-13502SY35-12-13610SY36-12-13349SY37-12-13506SY38-12-13547



SY34-13-14505SY35-13-14576SY36-13-14353SY37-13-14438SY38-13-14438



SY34-14-15410SY35-14-15665SY36-14-15362SY37-14-15446SY38-14-15392



SY34-15-16322SY35-15-16764SY36-15-16255SY37-15-16507SY38-15-16439



SY34-16-17226SY35-16-17945SY36-16-17160SY37-16-17606SY38-16-17445



SY34-17-18200SY35-17-18770SY36-17-18181SY37-17-18514SY38-17-18455



SY34-18-19266SY35-18-19690SY36-18-19283SY37-18-19808SY38-18-19385



SY34-19-20174SY35-19-20535SY36-19-20354SY37-19-20661SY38-19-20267



SY34-20-21128SY35-20-21446SY36-20-21298SY37-20-21449SY38-20-21268





SY35-21-22374SY36-21-22274SY37-21-22281SY38-21-22222





SY35-22-23343SY36-22-23268SY37-22-23440SY38-22-23140





SY35-23-24329SY36-23-24128SY37-23-24155SY38-23-24117





SY35-24-25331SY36-24-25106SY37-24-25133







SY35-25-26338SY36-25-2697SY37-25-26114







SY35-26-27304SY36-0-26232SY37-26-27109







SY35-27-28159











SY35-28-29126











SY35-29-30126









Drill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthSc
(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)
SY41-0-1200SY42-0-1373SY43-0-1128SY44-0-1107SY45-0-1147SY46-0-1358SY47-0-1158
SY41-1-2306SY42-1-2460SY43-1-2178SY44-1-2129SY45-1-2157SY46-1-2514SY47-1-2381
SY41-2-3496SY42-2-3477SY43-2-3179SY44-2-3134SY45-2-3165SY46-2-3512SY47-2-3424
SY41-3-4590SY42-3-4569SY43-3-4183SY44-3-4147SY45-3-4182SY46-3-4612SY47-3-4475
SY41-4-5747SY42-4-5795SY43-4-5225SY44-4-5117SY45-4-5191SY46-4-5546SY47-4-5451
SY41-5-6598SY42-5-6655SY43-5-6213SY44-5-6107SY45-5-6235SY46-5-6603SY47-5-6505
SY41-6-7591SY42-6-7588SY43-6-7195SY44-6-7110SY45-6-7500SY46-6-7594SY47-6-7567
SY41-7-8566SY42-7-8595SY43-7-8229SY44-7-8120SY45-7-8511SY46-7-8540SY47-7-8588
SY41-8-9525SY42-8-9540SY43-8-9323SY44-8-9152SY45-8-9564SY46-8-9577SY47-8-9492
SY41-9-10476SY42-9-10618SY43-9-10396SY44-9-10201SY45-9-10545SY46-9-10600SY47-9-10641
SY41-10-11469SY42-10-11574SY43-10-11506SY44-10-11239SY45-10-11475SY46-10-11590SY47-10-11865
SY41-11-12361SY42-11-12505SY43-11-12618SY44-11-12282SY45-11-12525SY46-11-12607SY47-11-12689
SY41-12-13300SY42-12-13617SY43-12-13647SY44-12-13253SY45-12-13401SY46-12-13504SY47-12-13810
SY41-13-14275SY42-13-14756SY43-13-14667SY44-13-14226SY45-13-14453SY46-13-14397SY47-13-14847
SY41-14-15208SY42-14-15606SY43-14-15695SY44-14-15249SY45-14-15514SY46-14-15485SY47-14-15874
SY41-15-16132SY42-15-16577SY43-15-16553SY44-15-16312SY45-15-16482SY46-15-16433SY47-15-16622


SY42-16-17556SY43-16-17484SY44-16-17359SY45-16-17516SY46-16-17469SY47-16-17268


SY42-17-18549SY43-17-18463SY44-17-18407SY45-17-18596SY46-17-18304SY47-17-18184


SY42-18-19343SY43-18-19349SY44-18-19380SY45-18-19625SY46-18-19152



SY42-19-20230SY43-19-20248SY44-19-20335SY45-19-20595SY46-19-20204



SY42-20-21133SY43-20-21268SY44-20-21532SY45-20-21835SY46-20-21212



SY42-21-22119SY43-21-22160SY44-21-22630SY45-21-22980SY46-21-22163



SY42-22-23121SY43-22-23240SY44-22-23492SY45-22-23687SY46-22-23121



SY42-23-24105SY43-23-24212SY44-23-24322SY45-23-24404SY46-23-24101







SY44-24-25285SY45-24-25243SY46-24-2583







SY44-25-26257SY45-25-26280SY46-25-2681







SY44-26-27238











SY44-27-28225











SY44-28-29261











SY44-29-30242





Drill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthSc
(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)
SY48-0-1203SY49-0-1150SY50-0-1111SY51-0-1358SY52-0-1156SY53-0-1206SY54-0-1206
SY48-1-2216SY49-1-2120SY50-1-2108SY51-1-2388SY52-1-2118SY53-1-2299SY54-1-2136
SY48-2-3229SY49-2-3102SY50-2-3106SY51-2-3401SY52-2-396SY53-2-3341SY54-2-3136
SY48-3-4211SY49-3-4106SY50-3-4114SY51-3-4NSSSY52-3-498SY53-3-4393SY54-3-4140
SY48-4-5217SY49-4-5122SY50-4-5153SY51-4-5513SY52-4-5116SY53-4-5457SY54-4-5200
SY48-5-6222SY49-5-6113SY50-5-6199SY51-5-6500SY52-5-6103SY53-5-6457SY54-5-6192
SY48-6-7264SY49-6-7116SY50-6-7245SY51-6-7425SY52-6-7108SY53-6-7479SY54-6-7212
SY48-7-8335SY49-7-8118SY50-7-8274SY51-7-8327SY52-7-8121SY53-7-8400SY54-7-8247
SY48-8-9416SY49-8-9133SY50-8-9277SY51-8-9347SY52-8-9115SY53-8-9510SY54-8-9251
SY48-9-10427SY49-9-10156SY50-9-10212SY51-9-10386SY52-9-10142SY53-9-10574SY54-9-10308
SY48-10-11486SY49-10-11155SY50-10-11278SY51-10-11522SY52-10-11166SY53-10-11466SY54-10-11416
SY48-11-12480SY49-11-12144SY50-11-12282SY51-11-12371SY52-11-12213SY53-11-12597SY54-11-12433
SY48-12-13427SY49-12-13163SY50-12-13349SY51-12-13456SY52-12-13265SY53-12-13656SY54-12-13275
SY48-13-14500SY49-13-14187SY50-13-14341SY51-13-14365SY52-13-14393SY53-13-14671SY54-13-14264
SY48-14-15552SY49-14-15236SY50-14-15472SY51-14-15384SY52-14-15431SY53-14-15968SY54-14-15225
SY48-15-16612SY49-15-16351SY50-15-16502SY51-15-16470SY52-15-16499SY53-15-16531SY54-15-16369
SY48-16-17672SY49-16-17400SY50-16-17600SY51-16-17475SY52-16-17561SY53-16-17348SY54-16-17400
SY48-17-18659SY49-17-18451SY50-17-18513SY51-17-18614SY52-17-18650SY53-17-18321SY54-17-18360
SY48-18-19582SY49-18-19353SY50-18-19404SY51-18-19533SY52-18-19611SY53-18-19232SY54-18-19419
SY48-19-20513SY49-19-20338SY50-19-20228SY51-19-20540SY52-19-20455SY53-19-20256SY54-19-20354
SY48-20-21376SY49-20-21217SY50-20-21322SY51-20-21600SY52-20-21449SY53-20-21315SY54-20-21400
SY48-21-22316SY49-21-22143SY50-21-22332SY51-21-22480SY52-21-22340SY53-21-22274SY54-21-22494
SY48-22-23318SY49-22-23114SY50-22-23309SY51-22-23396SY52-22-23316SY53-22-23258SY54-22-23313


SY49-23-2489SY50-23-24277SY51-23-24290SY52-23-24314SY53-23-24191SY54-23-24263




SY50-24-25217SY51-24-25213SY52-24-25307SY53-24-25105SY54-24-25234




SY50-25-26213SY51-25-26295SY52-25-26140

SY54-25-26281




SY50-26-27159SY51-26-27192SY52-26-27107

SY54-26-27268




SY50-27-28178SY51-27-28133



SY54-27-28266




SY50-28-29137





SY54-28-29289












SY54-29-30140












SY54-30-3184
Drill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthScDrill hole-depthSc



(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)(m)(ppm)



SY55-1-2576SY56-1-2441SY57-1-2390SY58-1-2137SY59-1-2137



SY55-2-3574SY56-2-3479SY57-2-3582SY58-2-3186SY59-2-3142



SY55-3-4664SY56-3-4492SY57-3-4598SY58-3-4191SY59-3-4133



SY55-4-5569SY56-4-5490SY57-4-5500SY58-4-5212SY59-4-5117



SY55-5-6481SY56-5-6493SY57-5-6594SY58-5-6223SY59-5-6103



SY55-6-7429SY56-6-7475SY57-6-7594SY58-6-7243SY59-6-7110



SY55-7-8358SY56-7-8432SY57-7-8673SY58-7-8257SY59-7-8108



SY55-8-9379SY56-8-9488SY57-8-9783SY58-8-9298SY59-8-9104



SY55-9-10244SY56-9-10500SY57-9-10899SY58-9-10315SY59-9-10101



SY55-10-11161SY56-10-11543SY57-10-11617SY58-10-11327SY59-10-11109



SY55-11-12120SY56-11-12508SY57-11-12214SY58-11-12329SY59-11-12120





SY56-12-13375SY57-12-13153SY58-12-13384SY59-12-13133





SY56-13-14411SY57-13-14118SY58-13-14500SY59-13-14161





SY56-14-15426SY57-14-15110SY58-14-15558SY59-14-15150





SY56-15-16471

SY58-15-16688SY59-15-16148





SY56-16-17314

SY58-16-17444SY59-16-17133





SY56-17-18214

SY58-17-18195SY59-17-18130





SY56-18-19230

SY58-18-19133SY59-18-19130





SY56-19-20192

SY58-19-2099SY59-19-20137





SY56-20-21119

SY58-20-21104SY59-20-21187











SY59-21-22252











SY59-22-23228











SY59-23-24149



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Table S-4 Nature and proportion of the phases identified for each sample (b.d.l: below detection limit using Rietveld refinement but present in the sample, abs.: absent from the sample).
CoreSample NameDepth (m)KaoliniteAl-rich goethiteHaematiteMaghemiteGibbsiteQuartzAnataseCalciteDolomiteLithiophorite
JSD-001jsd1_11511.5abs.5430113abs.1abs.1abs.
JSD-001jsd1_12112.1abs.5133113abs.1abs.2abs.
JSD-001jsd1_12512.5abs.4734117abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_13013.0abs.5028120abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_13513.5abs.5226121abs.b.d.l.abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_14014.0abs.4727125abs.b.d.l.abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_14414.414523129abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_14914.92249271abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_15415.464829115abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_16016.0235223b.d.l.abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_16416.43345291abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_16916.94230231abs.abs.3abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_17417.44328224abs.abs.3abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_17617.66176016abs.b.d.l.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_18018.03822335abs.b.d.l.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-001jsd1_18418.4948376abs.b.d.l.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_0838.32831342abs.abs.1abs.4abs.
JSD-002jsd2_0898.93634271abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_0969.65925121abs.abs.2abs.abs.1
JSD-002jsd2_10010.02840281abs.abs.2abs.abs.1
JSD-002jsd2_10710.73531311abs.abs.2abs.0abs.
JSD-002jsd2_11011.04417342abs.abs.2abs.1abs.
JSD-002jsd2_11711.74224292abs.abs.2abs.1abs.
JSD-002jsd2_12012.026243610abs.abs.1abs.3abs.
JSD-002jsd2_12512.53327362abs.abs.2abs.0abs.
JSD-002jsd2_13013.03226373abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_14014.03920362abs.abs.2abs.1abs.
JSD-002jsd2_14514.54224311abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_15015.03818383abs.abs.2abs.1abs.
JSD-002jsd2_16016.04116383abs.abs.2abs.0abs.
JSD-002jsd2_16516.53629313abs.abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_17017.03129362abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_17517.52224502abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_18018.02929382abs.abs.20abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_18518.52044313abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_19019.02834343abs.abs.1abs.abs.abs.
JSD-002jsd2_19519.53419423abs.abs.2abs.abs.abs.


Average25.633.532.22.54.101.600.40.1
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Table S-5 Bulk geochemical analyses for major and minor elements along with Sc and the rare earth elements.
CoreSample NameDepth (m)SiO2 (wt. %)TiO2 (wt. %)Al2O3 (wt. %)Fe2O3 (wt. %)Cr2O3 (wt. %)MnO (wt. %)NiO (wt. %)MgO (wt. %)CaO (wt. %)BaO (wt. %)Na2O (wt. %)K2O (wt. %)P2O5 (wt. %)SO3 (wt. %)L.O.I. (wt. %)Total (wt. %)
JSD-001jsd1_11511.53.412.2517.6959.690.400.150.040.380.19-0.010.09-0.010.060.1214.4598.90
JSD-001jsd1_12112.13.102.1917.3659.090.390.170.050.680.590.000.12-0.010.060.1215.3799.27
JSD-001jsd1_12512.54.601.8317.0357.420.330.210.060.400.12-0.010.10-0.010.030.0915.4297.63
JSD-001jsd1_13013.03.302.0417.2560.280.340.210.050.320.08-0.010.02-0.010.050.1014.7798.77
JSD-001jsd1_13513.53.511.8517.2159.380.340.230.070.410.07-0.020.06-0.010.030.1015.5798.81
JSD-001jsd1_14014.04.951.7918.3057.000.330.210.070.440.080.000.10-0.010.030.0915.7699.13
JSD-001jsd1_14414.46.201.4619.9745.100.270.160.050.520.20-0.020.04-0.010.030.0717.2191.26
JSD-001jsd1_14914.914.531.6215.8252.610.410.160.080.210.080.000.10-0.010.030.0514.0099.69
JSD-001jsd1_15415.48.351.8417.0055.010.350.220.070.460.09-0.010.09-0.010.040.0715.6099.16
JSD-001jsd1_16016.016.071.6516.8848.760.310.190.080.230.080.000.11-0.010.040.0514.4698.90
JSD-001jsd1_16416.417.881.7017.4547.510.320.170.070.280.10-0.010.180.000.020.0513.2498.97
JSD-001jsd1_16916.924.571.3220.3437.880.240.130.050.260.110.010.120.000.020.0314.6999.76
JSD-001jsd1_17417.421.891.1917.7144.870.230.200.040.270.120.000.140.000.020.0411.9498.65
JSD-001jsd1_17617.64.590.393.7883.900.100.620.060.210.080.010.09-0.010.010.024.8198.66
JSD-001jsd1_18018.017.981.1714.9552.250.150.470.050.250.150.000.110.000.040.0211.1798.76
JSD-001jsd1_18418.44.770.555.5376.620.210.420.200.340.090.010.16-0.010.030.078.5497.52
JSD-002jsd2_0838.317.371.5315.4248.030.200.840.060.961.350.010.060.000.020.0013.4199.26
JSD-002jsd2_0898.918.371.5517.2747.200.191.160.060.230.170.010.090.000.020.0113.2199.52
JSD-002jsd2_0969.624.981.0822.6033.130.151.620.100.210.120.040.070.000.020.0014.9299.04
JSD-002jsd2_10010.015.231.6414.2852.200.191.550.130.240.140.030.050.000.030.0013.0398.75
JSD-002jsd2_10710.717.791.5915.3550.320.160.750.060.280.240.010.060.000.030.0012.7099.32
JSD-002jsd2_11011.020.411.4016.0647.780.110.610.040.330.510.000.060.000.03-0.0112.0299.34
JSD-002jsd2_11711.720.081.2716.5047.490.200.540.060.290.320.010.060.000.030.0012.8399.68
JSD-002jsd2_12012.012.680.8510.2561.980.160.570.060.831.150.040.050.000.030.0010.7099.34
JSD-002jsd2_12512.516.871.5113.4754.180.440.430.060.230.220.020.050.000.03-0.0111.9399.43
JSD-002jsd2_13013.017.201.3713.4652.700.501.050.070.200.200.010.060.000.02-0.0112.3099.12
JSD-002jsd2_14014.017.921.4514.1752.170.190.350.040.350.560.010.100.000.06-0.0112.4399.79
JSD-002jsd2_14514.517.491.4712.9948.270.290.420.050.160.190.010.020.000.02-0.0111.6192.98
JSD-002jsd2_15015.017.121.4413.3151.260.350.980.110.400.410.050.040.000.01-0.0112.5898.05
JSD-002jsd2_16016.018.841.4814.4150.820.160.410.050.330.480.020.03-0.010.04-0.0111.5998.65
JSD-002jsd2_16516.517.841.4813.6152.300.200.420.100.280.190.000.07-0.010.05-0.0112.6599.16
JSD-002jsd2_17017.017.281.2612.7545.810.120.410.080.240.200.010.040.000.03-0.0112.8991.11
JSD-002jsd2_17517.516.471.5811.6253.520.162.240.100.220.280.020.020.000.05-0.0112.2398.50
JSD-002jsd2_18018.018.281.5613.0750.490.610.060.070.270.870.000.020.000.05-0.0113.0498.35
JSD-002jsd2_18518.516.611.6013.2252.400.430.140.090.290.210.000.050.000.04-0.0113.2898.34
JSD-002jsd2_19019.015.531.4912.3554.400.570.120.120.390.170.020.08-0.010.03-0.0113.1398.36
JSD-002jsd2_19519.520.911.4813.3548.850.100.640.080.340.26-0.010.090.000.02-0.0112.5998.69

Error (wt. %)
0.100.010.020.110.050.000.050.010.020.000.010.000.000.000.36

Saprolite (average)
49.990.272.328.310.260.170.0514.6619.45-0.010.21-0.010.00-0.014.64100.31
CoreSample NameDepth (m)La (ppm)Ce (ppm)Pr (ppm)Nd (ppm)Sm (ppm)Eu (ppm)Gd (ppm)Tb (ppm)Dy (ppm)Ho (ppm)Er (ppm)Yb (ppm)Lu (ppm)Y (ppm)Sc (ppm)
JSD-001jsd1_11511.511.350.94.219.36.21.75.60.95.31.02.93.20.523.9526.7
JSD-001jsd1_12112.16.047.72.210.53.51.03.20.53.10.61.71.90.311.6461.2
JSD-001jsd1_12512.512.0152.75.424.58.72.47.21.27.21.43.94.70.720.1542.6
JSD-001jsd1_13013.011.3234.94.721.37.12.06.31.16.11.23.43.80.621.0533.8
JSD-001jsd1_13513.58.1183.44.118.66.91.95.71.05.81.13.13.90.612.9539.8
JSD-001jsd1_14014.06.866.23.114.05.21.44.10.74.20.82.22.70.411.4495.8
JSD-001jsd1_14414.49.577.54.520.47.62.06.11.16.31.23.44.30.617.4547.9
JSD-001jsd1_14914.925.356.210.848.915.13.911.61.89.71.85.04.80.724.8375.2
JSD-001jsd1_15415.417.062.65.928.59.52.68.41.37.21.43.93.70.531.0573.8
JSD-001jsd1_16016.026.1124.811.353.816.84.613.72.211.92.26.06.20.932.9635.9
JSD-001jsd1_16416.427.9138.912.054.915.74.413.92.212.12.26.06.00.932.7654.8
JSD-001jsd1_16916.929.5234.211.752.712.13.310.61.68.11.53.93.40.524.8465.5
JSD-001jsd1_17417.422.9116.98.738.58.92.69.21.47.51.43.83.30.525.8358.3
JSD-001jsd1_17617.633.9138.810.445.310.53.111.11.68.61.74.53.80.630.5251.6
JSD-001jsd1_18018.025.171.58.636.68.62.58.91.37.11.33.53.00.423.0360.5
JSD-001jsd1_18418.428.538.37.734.98.72.712.21.79.82.15.74.20.747.0584.7
JSD-002jsd2_0838.324.677.17.131.66.71.97.51.05.21.12.81.90.332.0507.7
JSD-002jsd2_0898.923.4155.46.127.15.51.66.10.83.90.81.91.20.217.9296.3
JSD-002jsd2_0969.618.2320.24.821.54.81.45.60.83.90.82.01.30.216.8281.8
JSD-002jsd2_10010.013.061.04.119.44.91.55.80.84.60.92.51.90.328.4531.3
JSD-002jsd2_10710.77.539.62.411.02.80.83.40.52.70.61.41.10.219.6513.7
JSD-002jsd2_11011.09.859.23.214.33.51.03.60.52.80.51.41.20.215.7331.1
JSD-002jsd2_11711.712.490.14.018.44.61.34.80.73.90.72.01.70.215.9468.0
JSD-002jsd2_12012.010.666.53.918.65.61.76.10.95.31.12.92.80.427.7582.4
JSD-002jsd2_12512.55.221.02.09.52.70.82.80.42.40.51.31.00.215.6749.6
JSD-002jsd2_13013.08.871.22.812.53.10.93.00.42.10.41.00.80.19.6290.0
JSD-002jsd2_14014.05.929.02.411.33.31.03.50.53.10.61.71.50.217.4574.9
JSD-002jsd2_14514.54.218.81.67.92.20.62.20.31.70.30.90.70.18.6331.5
JSD-002jsd2_15015.08.955.93.013.53.51.13.30.52.60.51.31.00.112.3600.3
JSD-002jsd2_16016.05.111.92.310.63.20.92.70.42.40.41.21.30.27.9375.2
JSD-002jsd2_16516.58.415.63.618.36.01.86.11.06.01.23.33.70.616.2538.1
JSD-002jsd2_17017.011.618.64.320.66.52.06.71.16.51.33.74.30.722.0593.0
JSD-002jsd2_17517.520.961.56.429.88.12.37.51.16.21.23.23.00.421.9342.0
JSD-002jsd2_18018.012.33.85.124.87.52.27.61.26.91.33.73.70.624.8669.3
JSD-002jsd2_18518.56.05.63.316.95.41.65.30.95.00.92.52.40.414.6492.4
JSD-002jsd2_19019.08.35.44.422.97.32.37.71.27.21.43.73.30.523.2636.3
JSD-002jsd2_19519.521.820.29.044.911.63.310.71.58.21.64.03.20.428.4260.9

Error (ppm)
0.31.70.20.50.20.00.10.00.10.00.10.10.00.58.0

Saprolite (average)
5.75.92.210.62.70.82.80.42.10.41.10.80.111.999.4

Enrichment factor (JSD-001)
2.613.72.52.42.62.62.42.62.72.72.83.43.61.84.9
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Figure S-2 Enrichment factor of rare earth elements in the lateritic deposit versus ionic radius in octahedral coordination. Values are after Shannon (1976).
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Table S-6 Median, mean and standard deviation of Si, Ti, Fe, Al, analytical total and Sc concentrations in the different grain types distinguished by SEM imaging, EMP and cluster analysis.
Grain typeNum. Obs.
SiO2 (wt. %)

TiO2 (wt. %)

Al2O3 (wt. %)

Fe2O3 (wt. %)

Sc (ppm)

Total (wt. %)


MedianMeanStd. Dev.MedianMeanStd. Dev.MedianMeanStd. Dev.MedianMeanStd. Dev.MedianMeanStd. Dev.MedianMeanStd. Dev.
Fe-rich oxyhydroxide434.304.501.061.721.760.756.276.582.1670.5668.108.841190133935185.4983.019.01
Fe-rich oxide160.070.250.671.241.281.020.310.480.5195.6195.933.2520119585100.34100.452.41
Ti-rich oxide30.050.040.0257.3862.6311.50-1.23-1.270.1241.7537.229.771029250104.96104.162.10
Al-rich oxyhydroxide73.675.505.161.051.020.7052.3048.288.2619.6515.8410.7233627116168.4971.6412.38
Quartz499.1398.582.800.020.020.000.040.040.040.390.370.06-201099.6199.082.75
High-Sc matrix314.435.023.191.882.231.407.139.057.3961.5265.2812.4464065810785.6183.458.81
Kaolinite-rich matrix938.9136.309.970.080.320.4231.1430.267.673.7712.3314.6436440813982.4180.016.45
Low-Sc matrix122.735.546.021.791.910.606.427.304.3176.0570.5313.623913828390.4886.598.93
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Figure S-3 XRD patterns of synthetic Sc-bearing goethite and haematite.
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