Data
The production of corrugated board is normally expressed in m2.
For LCA it is preferable to have it expressed in weight.
The table shows the calculated inputs and outputs for the production of 1 tonne of corrugated board in Europe with an average paper grade composition. The explanation of the calculation is reported in chapter 2.3.
For the average corrugated board product, the paper input is 1.147 tonnes/tonne corrugated board, with an output of 0.147 tonnes paper for recycling.
Please note that corrugated board boxes are far from standardised. They show a huge variation in composition, design and appearance. Boxes are tailormade to fit the user’s needs and requirements determined by the product to be packed. The amount of paper and glue, percentage of trimmings/shavings vary according to the design of the packaging.
On average 1.147 tonne of paper is used to produce one tonne of corrugated board. The original five datasets for the four main paper grades and corrugated board production from which the data are derived, are reported in the Annex. The data for the corrugated box is calculated by multiplying the average paper grade composition by 1.147 and adding the corrugated board data reported in the Annex.
Averages are only given for parameters that were available from all five data sets.
The average for the main additives by weight (input of more than 1 kg) are given, in total covering 90% by weight of the total input of additives.
Product  2018  
tonne net saleable product  1  
SOLD BYPRODUCTS  
Tall oil  kg/t  3,46 
Turpentine  kg/t  0,25 
RAW MATERIAL  
Wood consumption  as bone dry weight (= 45% of transported total wet weight) 

Softwood logs  t/t  0,16 
Hardwood logs  t/t  0,04 
Saw mill residues, softwood  t/t  0,02 
Saw mill residues, hardwood  t/t  0,00 
Total wood  t/t  0,22 
Recovered Paper  as wet weight  1,09 
Category  
Mixed Grades  t/t  0,58 
Corrugated and Kraft, preconsumer  t/t  0,11 
Corrugated and Kraft, postconsumer  t/t  0,36 
Newspaper and Magazines  t/t  0,00 
Other grades  t/t  0,04 
Purchased pulp consumption  as bone dry weight  
Bleached pulp  t/t  0,0032 
Unbleached pulp  t/t  0,0003 
Paper consumption for corrugated board production  
Total  t/t  1,15 
Cores  kg/t  2,53 
Core plugs  kg/t  0,06 
TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS  
Wood  
Wood with truck  t*km  88,00 
Wood with rail  t*km  71,16 
Wood with boat  t*km  226,65 
Recovered paper  
Recovered paper with truck  t*km  344,38 
Recovered paper with rail  t*km  21,43 
Recovered paper with boat  t*km  32,21 
Paper to corrugated board plants  
Paper with truck  t*km  523,03 
Paper with rail  t*km  373,92 
Paper with boat  t*km  1987,75 
ENERGY INPUTS  
Steam  GJ/t  0,48 
Bought Electricity  GJ/t  1,24 
Fossil fuels  
Natural gas  GJ/t  4,60 
Heavy fuel oil  GJ/t  0,05 
Light fuel oil  GJ/t  0,04 
Diesel oil  GJ/t  0,01 
LPG  GJ/t  0,05 
Coal  GJ/t  0,54 
Lignite  GJ/t  0,08 
Peat  GJ/t  0,00 
Total fossil fuel  GJ/t  5,43 
Renewable fuels  
Biofuel (bark, scrap wood, tall oil)  GJ/t  0,76 
Total renewable fuel  GJ/t  0,76 
Refuse Derived Fuel  GJ/t  1,17 
Total fuel  GJ/t  6,18 
WATER  
Input total  m^{3}/t  13,55 
Ground water (non renewable) 
m^{3}/t  1,14 
Ground water (renewable)  m^{3}/t  1,87 
Surface water  m^{3}/t  9,92 
Municipal water supply  m^{3}/t  0,68 
Rain water  m^{3}/t  0,03 
Other water received  m^{3}/t  0,07 
Water inout 
m^{3}/t  1,07 


ADDITIVES, DRY MASS  
Alum (Al2(SO4)3  kg/t  0,65 
Biocides  kg/t  0,16 
Borax  kg/t  0,14 
CaCO3  kg/t  1,23 
CaO  kg/t  0,72 
Coagulant  kg/t  0,00 
Colorants  kg/t  0,75 
CO2  kg/t  0,55 
Defoamer  kg/t  0,29 
Fillers  kg/t  3,12 
Glue, cold + hot melts  kg/t  0,65 
H2O2, peroxide  kg/t  0,47 
H2SO4  kg/t  1,69 
Water based ink for flexo printing  kg/t  1,82 
Varnish for printing  kg/t  0,61 
Ligno sulphonate  kg/t  0,63 
Lubricants  kg/t  0,09 
MgO  kg/t  0,03 
NaClO3  kg/t  0,02 
Na2CO3 (soda)  kg/t  0,28 
Na2SO4  kg/t  
NaOH  kg/t  2,37 
NH3  kg/t  0,34 
Oxygen, O2  kg/t  0,29 
PAC (polyaluminiumclorid)  kg/t  0,00 
Pitch despergents  kg/t  0,29 
Polymer and retention agents  kg/t  1,09 
S  kg/t  0,11 
Sizing agents  kg/t  2,40 
SO2  kg/t  0,00 
Starch, corn  kg/t  28,40 
Starch, potato  kg/t  0,21 
Starch, wheat  kg/t  31,50 
Starch, modified  kg/t  3,70 
PACKAGING MATERIALS  
Pallet  kg/t  na 
Paper, board  kg/t  7,59 
PE  kg/t  0,68 
Steel  kg/t  
Strapping  kg/t  0,48 
EMISSIONS TO AIR  
Dust  kg/t  0,02 
Particulates, < 2.5 um  kg/t  0,00 
Particulates, > 2.5 um, and < 10um  kg/t  0,00 
Particulates, > 10 um  kg/t  0,00 
CO2 (fossil)  kg/t  341,85 
CO2 (biomass)  kg/t  293,99 
CO  kg/t  0,38 
NOx (as NO2)  kg/t  0,58 
SOx (as SO2)  kg/t  0,15 
TRS (H2S as S)  kg/t  0,00 
EMISSIONS TO WATER  
Water output  m³/t  
Thermally polluted  m³/t  3,35 
Process water after treatment  m³/t  9,19 
Total  m³/t  12,64 
COD  kg/t  1,99 
BOD 5  kg/t  0,62 
TOC  kg/t  0,83 
Suspended solids  kg/t  0,62 
Total Nitrogen  kg/t  0,13 
AOX  kg/t  0,00 
Total Phosphorus  kg/t  0,01 
RESIDUES  wet weight  
Calcium Carbonate  kg/t  1,51 
Ink residues  kg/t  0,44 
Inorganic ashes (10 01 01)  kg/t  7,04 
Inorganic sludges  kg/t  1,02 
Organic sludges (03 03 01 and 03 03 11)  kg/t  63,76 
Paper for recycling  kg/t  147,00 
Rejects, paper related  kg/t  22,92 
Rejects, other  kg/t  45,84 
Starch, glue (wet weight)  kg/t  0,02 
Lubricants and oil  kg/t  0,08 