Back to article

Figures and tables

Solar wind implantation supplied light volatiles during the first stage of Earth accretion

S. Péron1,

1Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris - Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR CNRS 7154, Université Paris Diderot, 1 Rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France

M. Moreira1,

1Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris - Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR CNRS 7154, Université Paris Diderot, 1 Rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France

B. Putlitz2,

2Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Lausanne, Géopolis Building, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

M.D. Kurz3

3Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, MS #25, Clark 421, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, United States

Affiliations  |  Corresponding Author  |  Cite as  |  Funding information

Péron, S., Moreira, M., Putlitz, B., Kurz, M.D. (2017) Solar wind implantation supplied light volatiles during the first stage of Earth accretion. Geochem. Persp. Let. 3, 151–159.

Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris

Geochemical Perspectives Letters v3, n2  |  doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1718
Received 12 October 2016  |  Accepted 08 February 2017  |  Published 13 March 2017
Copyright © 2017 European Association of Geochemistry




Figure 1 The three neon isotopes plot for the vesicles. Data from the literature for the same samples (Péron et al., 2016

Péron, S., Moreira, M., Colin, A., Arbaret, L., Putlitz, B., Kurz, M.D. (2016) Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 449, 145–154.

) are in orange diamonds and circles. The new data are in blue circles, the two vesicles in light blue (V4B and V16B) are assumed to be air contaminated (Figs. S-1, S-4). The Fernandina source isotopic composition estimated from the statistical analysis with the new data is indicated with the green star, in comparison with the previous one (Péron et al., 2016

Péron, S., Moreira, M., Colin, A., Arbaret, L., Putlitz, B., Kurz, M.D. (2016) Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 449, 145–154.

) indicated with the grey square. Ne-B (Moreira, 2013

Moreira, M. (2013) Noble gas constraints on the origin and evolution of Earth's volatiles. Geochemical Perspectives 2, 229–403.

), Sun (Heber et al., 2012

Heber, V.S., Baur, H., Bochsler, P., McKeegan, K.D., Neugebauer, M., Reisenfeld, D.B., Wieler, R., Wiens, R.C. (2012) Isotopic Mass Fractionation of Solar Wind: Evidence from Fast and Slow Solar Wind Collected by the Genesis mission. The Astrophysical Journal 759, 121.

), solar wind SW (Heber et al., 2009

Heber, V.S., Wieler, R., Baur, H., Olinger, C., Friedmann, A., Burnett, D.S. (2009) Noble gas composition of the solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 7414-7432.

), mfl mass fractionation line.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure 2 40Ar/36Ar ratio vs 20Ne/22Ne ratio for the vesicles. The latter are in blue circles (vesicles V2A and V11B have too large uncertainties and are not represented). Previous data are in orange diamonds and circles (Péron et al., 2016

Péron, S., Moreira, M., Colin, A., Arbaret, L., Putlitz, B., Kurz, M.D. (2016) Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 449, 145–154.

). The two vesicles in light blue (V4B and V16B) are assumed to be air contaminated, as indicated by the 40Ar/36Ar data, along with distribution of microcracks (Figs. S-1, S-2, S-3, S-4, S-8). The Fernandina source isotopic composition inferred from laser ablation data alone is indicated with the green star, in comparison with the previous one (Péron et al., 2016

Péron, S., Moreira, M., Colin, A., Arbaret, L., Putlitz, B., Kurz, M.D. (2016) Neon isotopic composition of the mantle constrained by single vesicle analyses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 449, 145–154.

) indicated with the grey square.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure 3 Gaussian curves obtained (a) for the 20Ne/22Ne ratio and (b) for the 38Ar/36Ar ratio. The light blue dotted curve is the cumulative curve obtained with the data (except V4B and V16B), the dark blue curve is the Gaussian fit. As an example, the orange dotted curve for vesicle V9 contributes strongly to the cumulative curve, whereas V6 (green curve) is poorly constrained. The mean isotopic ratios, from the statistical analysis, are represented with the blue lines and the corresponding uncertainties (σ/√n) with the shaded areas. Solar wind (SW) (Heber et al., 2009

Heber, V.S., Wieler, R., Baur, H., Olinger, C., Friedmann, A., Burnett, D.S. (2009) Noble gas composition of the solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 7414-7432.

; Pepin et al., 2012

Pepin, R.O., Schlutter, D.J., Becker, R.H., Reisenfeld, D.B. (2012) Helium, neon, and argon composition of the solar wind as recorded in gold and other Genesis collector materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 89, 62–80.

), Sun (Heber et al., 2012

Heber, V.S., Baur, H., Bochsler, P., McKeegan, K.D., Neugebauer, M., Reisenfeld, D.B., Wieler, R., Wiens, R.C. (2012) Isotopic Mass Fractionation of Solar Wind: Evidence from Fast and Slow Solar Wind Collected by the Genesis mission. The Astrophysical Journal 759, 121.

), Phase Q (Busemann et al., 2000

Busemann, H., Baur, H., Wieler, R. (2000) Primordial noble gases in "phase Q" in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites studied by closed-system stepped etching. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 35, 949–973.

).
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Back to article

Supplementary Figures and Tables


Figure S-1 X-ray microtomography image of the sample AHA-NEMO2-D22B (piece 1, Table S-1). (a) Example of one slice of the sample with the vesicle V4B at the middle top (the scale bar is 1,000 μm) and (b) is a zoom on this vesicle (black square) to show the location (the scale bar is 300 μm). On these images, vesicles are in white and the glass matrix is in grey as well as a few crystals. A network of cracks (in white) is clearly visible. Vesicle V4B is very close to the surface and is likely contaminated due to a small connection to air.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-2 X-ray microtomography image of the sample AHA-NEMO2-D22B (piece 2, Table S-1) to show the location of vesicle V16B. The original slice is represented in (a) and the very tiny crack just above the vesicle V16B is indicated by a black line in (b). To reach the vesicle, the laser also pierced the crack, which introduced air. The scale bars are 1,000 μm. (Refer also to the legend of Fig. S-1).
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-3 X-ray microtomography image of the sample AHA-NEMO2-D22B (piece 3, Table S-1) to show the location of vesicle V14B. The original slice is represented in (a) and vesicle V14B is indicated with a black square (the scale bar is 1,000 μm), (b) is a zoom on this vesicle to show what surrounds it (the scale bar is 260 μm). (Refer also to the legend of Fig. S-1). Vesicle V14B has a low 20Ne/22Ne ratio (Table S-3) but no crack is visible on the images. This vesicle is unlikely to be contaminated because the 40Ar/36Ar ratio is 7155 ± 1546.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-4 X-ray microtomography image of the sample AHA-NEMO2-D22B (piece 2, Table S-1). This shows an example of a non-contaminated vesicle, vesicle V15B, which is the biggest vesicle analysed. The scale bar is 1,000 μm. (Refer also to the legend of Fig. S-1).
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-5 40Ar/36Ar vs 38Ar/36Ar for the vesicles. The Fernandina (Galápagos) source composition is indicated with the green star. The two light blue circles correspond to the two contaminated vesicles (V4B and V16B). Vesicles V2A and V11B are not represented because their uncertainties are too large.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-6 Gaussian curves obtained for the 21Ne/22Ne ratio. The light blue dotted curve is the cumulative Gaussian curve taking into account all the vesicles (except V4B and V16B), the dark blue curve is the Gaussian fit. Examples of two Gaussian curves are indicated for some vesicles: vesicle V9 (orange dotted curve) has low uncertainties and contributes strongly to the global Gaussian curve, vesicle V6 (green curve) is poorly constrained and has nearly no influence on the global curve. The mean isotopic ratio (0.0345) determined with the statistical analysis is represented with the solid blue line. The shaded area corresponds to σ/√n = ±0.0004. For comparison, air composition is indicated.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-7 Cumulative curve obtained for the 40Ar/36Ar ratio taking into account all the vesicles (except V4B and V16B). This curve cannot be correctly fitted with a Gaussian curve. The 40Ar/36Ar ratio is between 6000 and 7000 for the Fernandina source.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Figure S-8 40Ar/36Ar vs 36Ar (in cm3 STP) for the vesicles. The two contaminated vesicles (V4B and V16B) are in light blue. Except for these two bubbles, the 40Ar/36Ar ratio does not change with the 36Ar concentration, which indicates that the vesicles are not contaminated by air. Vesicles V2A and V11B are not represented because they have too large uncertainties.
Back to article | Download in Powerpoint


Table S-1 Acquisition parameters for X-ray microtomography. The experiments were conducted at the Institute of Earth Sciences (Lausanne, Switzerland) on a Skyscan 1173 system. One piece of sample AHA-NEMO2-D22A has been studied and four for sample AHA-NEMO2-D22B. The piece number is indicated as well as the voltage (in kV), the current (in µA), the rotation step size (in degrees), the number of frames (which is the number of images taken for one position), the filter type used and the resolution (in µm per pixel). The resolution in µm3 per voxel (1 voxel = 1 x 1 x 1 pixel) is the cubic resolution in µm per pixel.

Sample#VoltageCurrentRotation step sizeNumber of framesFilterPixel size
kVµA°µm
AHA-NEMO2-D22A1701140.2254Al 1.0 mm5.7
AHA-NEMO2-D22B1701140.2254Al 1.0 mm8.2
AHA-NEMO2-D22B2701140.2254Al 1.0 mm6.4
AHA-NEMO2-D22B3701140.2254Al 1.0 mm5.7
AHA-NEMO2-D22B4701140.2258Al 1.0 mm9.3
Back to article | Download in Excel


Table S-2 CO2 and noble gas (4He, 22Ne and 36Ar) abundances (in cm3 STP) for all the vesicles for samples AHA-NEMO2-D22A and AHA-NEMO2-D22B (Fernandina, Galápagos). The ablation time for each vesicle is indicated in brackets. The piece number (refer to Table S-1) and the depth of each vesicle below the sample surface are mentioned. The vesicle volumes were calculated with the 3D Object Counter plugin of ImageJ. The CO2 contents were determined using the pressure jump recorded on the manometer, calibrated with the air standard, and assuming that CO2 is the major gas (Moore et al., 1977). Errors are 1 sigma uncertainties.

Sample#DepthVolumeCO2±4He±22Ne±36Ar±
µmx106 µm3x10-4 cm3x10-8 cm3x10-13 cm3x10-13 cm3
AHA-NEMO2-D22A vesicles
V1A (2’02”)110015.610.31.002.060.093.740.299.250.38
V2A (25”)14811.67.450.721.480.092.700.271.720.38
AHA-NEMO2-D22B vesicles
V1B (41”)11534.322.12.104.340.088.350.2622.60.38
V2B (16”)12010.56.480.641.290.081.900.265.090.36
V3B (2’02”)111029.618.91.803.750.086.100.2615.70.37
V4B (12”)12216.310.21.001.960.084.510.2634.60.42
V5B (30”)1604.12.640.310.510.080.990.262.840.36
V6B (1’50”)2504.83.040.340.600.091.010.263.000.37
V7B (16”)49032.519.61.903.820.096.950.3319.50.45
V8B (17”)411019.112.61.202.440.093.910.2811.40.40
V9B (50”)315526.716.91.603.360.096.400.3214.50.42
V10B (40”)319514.89.480.911.890.093.440.288.490.39
V11B (8”)4181.01.410.220.290.090.500.261.080.37
V12B (15”)41009.45.970.591.180.092.670.274.880.38
V13B (23”)313011.57.310.711.450.092.720.275.740.38
V14B (25”)315511.46.870.671.320.092.480.275.570.38
V15B (25”)29035.922.72.104.440.097.380.3419.20.41
V16B (3’39”)214525.715.81.503.130.096.490.3323.60.42
V17B (3’)122026.015.41.503.030.095.590.3312.40.39
V18B (45”)210031.219.51.803.860.096.610.3614.10.39
Back to article | Download in Excel


Table S-3 Isotopic compositions of the vesicles for samples AHA-NEMO2-D22A and AHA-NEMO2-D22B (Fernandina, Galápagos). Ra is the air 3He/4He ratio and is equal to 1.384 x 10-6 (Clarke et al., 1976) . 40Ar* is radiogenic 40Ar. We consider a 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 298.6 for the air (Lee et al., 2006) to determine the 40Ar/36Ar and 4He/40Ar* ratios. n.d. means not determined when gases from the vesicle are indistinguishable from the matrix blank. Errors are 1 sigma uncertainties.

SampleCO2/3He±3He/4He ±20Ne/22Ne±21Ne/22Ne±38Ar/36Ar±40Ar/36Ar±4He/40Ar*±
x109(xRa)
AHA-NEMO2-D22A vesicles
V1A1.550.1723.500.5612.670.130.03730.00170.20430.0039667410723.490.62
V2A1.640.1922.150.6312.660.190.03730.00140.19670.0145n.d.n.d.3.532.52
AHA-NEMO2-D22B vesicles
V1B1.620.1622.740.4912.540.070.03500.00090.18840.001858094253.480.28
V2B1.610.1922.600.5613.070.270.03530.00260.20190.0084760122083.471.10
V3B1.560.1623.280.5212.830.090.03300.00100.19010.002771716743.470.36
V4B1.660.1822.610.6211.920.110.03470.00150.18920.00161962593.410.19
V5B1.630.3422.970.7612.330.360.03230.00450.19740.0094542626413.501.95
V6B1.690.3121.580.4612.990.550.03990.00540.17110.0153613821973.431.44
V7B1.620.1622.920.4312.730.090.03350.00110.18770.001760383323.420.23
V8B1.620.1723.160.4712.640.130.03520.00170.19050.002963505933.520.39
V9B1.580.1623.070.4612.640.100.03380.00150.18890.002468805973.510.35
V10B1.530.1723.650.5812.550.110.03140.00230.18650.003565259663.570.60
V11B1.640.5621.791.2412.000.440.02970.0051n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.
V12B1.540.1923.590.5412.520.170.03600.00200.17210.0088701916463.610.96
V13B1.610.1922.570.6612.590.120.03500.00170.17440.0068745314903.530.80
V14B1.680.2022.460.5812.170.130.03230.00200.19580.0053715515463.450.84
V15B1.600.1623.110.4512.740.090.03460.00100.18950.001969276423.480.35
V16B1.570.1623.360.4612.340.090.03300.00150.18420.002041013003.490.30
V17B1.640.1722.470.5112.580.070.03450.00090.18770.002371427233.560.41
V18B1.590.1622.850.5612.810.070.03450.00110.18910.001882066953.470.33
Back to article | Download in Excel


Table S-4 Noble gas abundances of the matrix blanks (in cm3 STP) for samples AHA-NEMO2-D22A and AHA-NEMO2-D22B (Fernandina, Galápagos). The ablation times are indicated in brackets. Errors are 1 sigma uncertainties.

Sample4He±22Ne±36Ar±
x10-10 cm3x10-13 cm3x10-12 cm3
AHA-NEMO2-D22A matrix
Blank 1 (2’02”)3.980.281.010.231.550.03
Blank 2 (25”)3.590.280.910.231.170.03
AHA-NEMO2-D22B matrix
Blank 1 (41”)3.690.281.290.231.740.03
Blank 2 (16”)3.830.281.500.231.540.03
Blank 3 (2’01”)3.780.281.150.231.180.03
Blank 4 (15”)3.830.281.070.231.460.03
Blank 5 (2’)3.690.281.330.231.130.03
Blank 6 (4’30”)3.900.280.760.231.120.03
Blank 7 (50”)3.920.280.790.231.320.03
Blank 8 (16”)4.000.280.840.231.200.03
Blank 9 (25”)4.370.280.790.231.250.03
Blank 10 (27”)3.710.280.910.231.860.03
Blank 11 (3’)3.560.281.750.241.980.03
Blank 12 (3’)3.850.280.630.231.310.03
Blank 13 (45”)3.860.280.740.231.240.03
Back to article | Download in Excel


Table S-5 Isotopic compositions of the matrix blanks for samples AHA-NEMO2-D22A and AHA-NEMO2-D22B (Fernandina, Galápagos). Errors are 1 sigma uncertainties.

Sample3He/4He ±20Ne/22Ne±21Ne/22Ne±38Ar/36Ar±40Ar/36Ar±
(xRa)
AHA-NEMO2-D22A matrix
Blank 1 (2’02”)1.90.610.400.160.02780.00220.19010.00112972
Blank 2 (25”)1.80.610.130.170.02970.00240.19330.00142962
AHA-NEMO2-D22B matrix
Blank 1 (41”)1.50.510.260.090.02470.00210.18860.00162992
Blank 2 (16”)1.00.510.000.090.03220.00200.18390.00202963
Blank 3 (2’01”)1.10.710.180.180.02850.00330.19540.00182963
Blank 4 (15”)6.50.810.070.160.03120.00180.19130.00142913
Blank 5 (2’)1.80.410.230.220.02930.00190.20270.00143092
Blank 6 (4’30”)2.20.89.990.170.03040.00260.20010.00183012
Blank 7 (50”)15.515.010.420.110.03500.00270.19640.00152902
Blank 8 (16”)2.35.210.260.110.03050.00140.20000.00143032
Blank 9 (25”)1.10.710.240.150.03010.00380.18890.00172932
Blank 10 (27”)2.60.610.460.120.03040.00280.19220.00113001
Blank 11 (3’)2.60.910.020.160.03080.00210.20390.00133122
Blank 12 (3’)1.00.610.260.210.03510.00210.19890.00113032
Blank 13 (45”)1.80.610.560.200.02990.00200.19120.00103012
Back to article | Download in Excel