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Climate driven carbon and microbial signatures through the last ice age

J. D’Andrilli1,2+,

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, USA
2Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, USA
+Current affiliation: Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana, USA

H.J. Smith2,

2Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, USA

M. Dieser2,

2Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, USA

C.M. Foreman1,2

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, USA
2Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, USA

Affiliations  |  Corresponding Author  |  Cite as  |  Funding information

D’Andrilli, J., Smith, H.J., Dieser, M., Foreman, C.M. (2017) Climate driven carbon and microbial signatures through the last ice age. Geochem. Persp. Let. 4, 29-34.

This work was supported by the United States National Science Foundation through grants ANT-1141936 to CMF, DGE-0654336 to CMF and HJS, and DMR-11-57490 for mass spectral analysis. HJS was also supported by a NASA Earth and Science Space Fellowship.

Geochemical Perspectives Letters v4  |  doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1732
Received 28 March 2017  |  Accepted 31 July 2017  |  Published 21 September 2017




Figure 1 Organic matter (OM) characterisation of Byrd and WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) Antarctic ice cores by (a-b) fluorescence spectroscopy and (c-d) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry van Krevelen diagrams.
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Figure 2 Top: Relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences representing the distribution of microbial assemblages within the Byrd and WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) ice core sections. Bottom: Comparisons of predicted genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid pathways for the dominant bacterial classes.
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Figure 3 Schematic depicting Antarctic palaeoecological markers of organic carbon (OC) and microbial community structure from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and last deglaciation (LD).
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Supplementary Figures and Tables


Table S-1 Volatile organic compounds, diesel range organics, and total extractable hydrocarbon concentrations for the inner ice core of Byrd and WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3), and the outer shavings removed during decontamination procedures of the WD_3 ice core. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) detection methods were used for contaminant analyses.
Volatile Organics and Contaminants EPAByrdWD_3WD_3
  Method(inner core)(inner core)(outer shavings)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)SW8260B0.00061 mg/L0.017 mg/L0.9 mg/L
(1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane) 


Diesel Range Organics (DROs)SW8015MNDND7.7 mg/L

 RL = 0.24 mg/LRL = 0.31 mg/L 
Total Extractable HydrocarbonsSW8015MNDND7.9 mg/L
  RL = 0.24 mg/LRL = 0.31 mg/L 

RL: Analyte reporting limit
ND: Not detected

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Table S-2 Antarctic ice core location, approximate ages, climate descriptions and concentrations of organic carbon (OC), bacteria, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, and SO42- (± 1 SD) for Byrd Research Station and the WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) ice core samples of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the last deglaciation (LD) climate periods.

AgeClimateOCBacteriaCl-NO3-PO43-SO42-
Ice Core Sample(ka BP 1950)Period(µM) (105 cells/mL)(µM)(µM)(µM)(µM)
Byrd20.458LGM445 (±5.3)1.92 (±0.13)2.90 (±0.07)5.16 (±0.16)2.77 (±2.08)8.08 (±4.18)
WD_314.528LD11.8 (±0.29)0.13 (±0.03)1.95 (±0.07)0.156 (±0.020)ND1.01 (±0.08)

ND = Below detection limit

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Table S-3 Molecular composition of CcHhNnOoSs containing organic matter from Byrd Research Station and WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) ice core sections determined by negative ion electrospray ionisation 9.4 tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

ByrdWD_3
Molecular Species(%)(%)
CHO63.174.4
CHOS122.619.3
CHON12.41.6
CHON1S12.41.33
CHON26.512.26
CHON2S12.911.13
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Figure S-1 Geographical location of the Byrd and WAIS Divide drilling sites.
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Figure S-2 H/C and O/C molecular formulae of organic matter (OM) characterised in the WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) and Byrd Antarctic ice core OM sections, highlighting the degree of overlap, and exact composition matches between both samples on a van Krevelen diagram. Chemically labile OM (easily altered) is shown as a function of hydrogen saturation.
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Figure S-3 Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images from (a-b) WAIS Divide deviation #3 (WD_3) and (c-d) Byrd Antarctic ice core sections. Scale bar is 1 µm.
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