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Figures and tables

Hydrocarbons as ore fluids

A.A. Migdisov1,

1Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

X. Guo1,

1Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

H. Xu1,

1Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

A.E. Williams-Jones2,

2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8, Canada

C.J. Sun3,

3X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA

O. Vasyukova2,

2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8, Canada

I. Sugiyama2,

2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8, Canada

S. Fuchs2,

2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8, Canada

K. Pearce2,

2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8, Canada

R. Roback1

1Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA

Affiliations  |  Corresponding Author  |  Cite as  |  Funding information

Migdisov, A.A., Guo, X., Xu, H., Williams-Jones, A.E., Sun, C.J., Vasyukova, O., Sugiyama, I., Fuchs, S., Pearce, K., Roback, R. (2017) Hydrocarbons as ore fluids. Geochem. Persp. Let. 5, 47–52.

DoE, NSERC, and FQRNT.

Geochemical Perspectives Letters v5  |  doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1745
Received 8 September 2017  |  Accepted 8 November 2017  |  Published 15 December 2017
Copyright © 2017 European Association of Geochemistry




Figure 1 Solubility of metallic gold, zinc, and uranium oxide determined in a variety of crude oils during isothermal solubility experiments.
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Figure 2 (a) A sketch of the experimental setup for qualitative determination of the ability of natural oils to transport metals at elevated temperatures. (b) A photo and a back scattered electron image of the precipitate discovered at the precipitation target in the experiments with Zn.
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Figure 3 Results of an energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of precipitates obtained from the transport experiments with Zn.
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Figure 4 Synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental maps showing the spatial distributions of (a) Au and (b) Zn, on a logarithmic scale of intensity (hot colours indicate higher intensity); Zn K edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra (c) of Zn-bearing and Zn-free samples (the spectrum of the former was taken from the marker in (b)).
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Supplementary Figures and Tables


Table S-1 Natural crude oils used in the experiments.
OilsLocationAPI (60 ˚F)S (wt. %)N (ppm)Zn (ppb)Au (ppb)U (ppb)Ni (ppb)V (ppb)
OMC 3178Gabon38.10.017631061 ± 322.39 ± 0.55< 0.000114733 ± 263168 ± 2.70
OMC 6965TurkeyN/AN/AN/A161 ± 911.52 ± 0.19< 0.000110547 ± 42413137 ± 210
OMC 7223UK33.10.491042132 ± 431.00 ± 0.07< 0.00011101 ± 15.91570 ± 7.45
OMC 13583Oman41.80.32321525 ± 1360.88 ± 0.11< 0.0001902 ± 33.9374 ± 10.3
OMC 14501Oman28.82.481471196 ± 1200.64 ± 0.01< 0.00013997 ± 67.03661 ± 33.1
Shell #1N/A28.13.2452.1< 0.12.34 ± 0.180.012 ± 0.0043.33 ± 0.0090.44 ± 0.09
Shell #2N/A39.50.13109< 0.10.29 ± 0.110.011 ± 0.0144.97 ± 1.1984.2 ± 12.2
Statoil #1N/A50.60.12180246 ± 250.17 ± 0.010.032 ± 0.00585.0 ± 4.27358 ± 11.8
Statoil #2N/A25.40.528705977 ± 374< 0.010.037 ± 0.0012069 ± 67.18811 ± 189
Statoil #3N/A29.60.3500240 ± 6.64< 0.010.035 ± 0.001897 ± 3.59234 ± 11.2
Statoil #4N/A35.90.14540296 ± 125< 0.010.021 ± 0.004988 ± 3.69616 ± 5.46
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Figure S-1 A sketch of the experimental setup to determine the solubility in natural oils used in experiments with (a) Au and Zn and (b) uranium oxide.
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Table S-2 Solubility of metallic gold (±5 %).
SampleT (°C)Au (ppb)
Shell#11002.63
Shell#11001.83
Shell#21002.53
Shell#21001.83
Shell#21002.77
Statoil #11001.03
Statoil #41001.5
Statoil #21001.1
Statoil #31001.33
Shell#11251.47
Shell#11253.6
Shell#11252.37
Shell#21251.87
Shell#21253.17
Shell#21252.73
OMC 135831253.5
Shell#11252.1
Shell#21251.27
Shell#21506.67
Shell#11504.33
Statoil #31502.97
Statoil #41502.83
Statoil #21501.77
Statoil #11503.6
Shell#220011
Shell#120017
Statoil #1 20014.87
Statoil #32008.8
OMC 995625040.4
  OMC 14501  25047.27
OMC 696525044.67
OMC 317825044.73
OMC 1358325048.7
OMC 722325045.6
Shell#125047.03
Shell#225043.27
Statoil #325042.2
Statoil #425034.7
Statoil #225039.2
Statoil #125043.8
OMC 145013001.97
OMC 69653000.33
OMC 31783000.6
OMC 1358330029.13
OMC 72233000.3
Shell#13001
Shell#23001.63
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Table S-3 Solubility of uranium oxide: uraninite/ pitchblende (±3 %).
SampleT (°C)U (ppb)
Statoil #210021.1
Statoil #310019.2
Statoil #110015.1
Statoil #410029.1
Statoil #215063.9
Statoil #315042.8
Statoil #115079.6
Statoil #415092.9
Statoil #2200302
Statoil #3200217.1
Statoil #4200196
Statoil #2200270
Statoil #225036.5
Statoil #325016.1
Statoil #125018.2
Statoil #425033.8
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Table S-4 Solubility of metallic zinc (±5 %).
SampleT (°C)Zn (ppm)
OMC 145011002.7
OMC 69651000.7
OMC 31781001.6
OMC 135831000.3
OMC 72231001.4
Shell#11003.2
Shell#21000.7
OMC 145011507.5
OMC 69651506.9
OMC 31781509.6
OMC 135831508.7
OMC 72231507.2
Shell#11507.7
Shell#21505.5
OMC 1450120022.5
OMC 696520024.7
OMC 317820024.7
OMC 1358320024.1
OMC 722320024.5
Shell#120025.6
Shell#220026.1
OMC 145012500.3
OMC 69652504
OMC 31782503.6
OMC 135832502
OMC 72232500.4
Shell#12502.1
Shell#22500.7
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Figure S-2 Examples of back scattered electron images and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of deposits found on the precipitation targets in non-isothermal experiments.
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Figure S-3 Examples of back scattered electron images of gold grids from blank experiments (no Zn source).
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Figure S-4 Group a: (a) Zn K-edge XANES spectra of Zn precipitates, (b) comparison with the background Zn from gold meshes (blue), (c) position of Zn hot spot 1 indicated by an arrow (the left map is plotted on a log scale and the right map on a normal scale; the following maps are plotted in the same manner), (d) position of Zn hot spot 2 indicated by an arrow, (e) Au distribution of the gold mesh.
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Figure S-5 Group b: (a) Zn K-edge XANES spectra of Zn precipitates, (b) comparison with background Zn (blue), (c) position of Zn hot spot 1 indicated by an arrow, (d) Au distribution of the gold mesh.
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Figure S-6 Group c: (a) Zn K-edge XANES spectra showing the background Zn, (b) position of Zn spot 1 indicated by an arrow, and Zn intensity on a normal scale (right) showing the essential absence of Zn, (c) position of Zn spot 2 indicated by an arrow, (d) Au distribution of the gold grid.
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